17 Preface فَلَم تَقتُلوهُم وَلٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ قَتَلَهُم ۚ وَما رَمَيتَ إِذ رَمَيتَ وَلٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ رَمىٰ ۚ وَلِيُبلِيَ المُؤمِنينَ مِنهُ بَلاءً حَسَنًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَميعٌ عَليمٌYusuf AliIt is not ye who slew them; it was God. when thou threwest (a handful1 of dust), it was not thy act, but God’s: in order that He might test the Believers by a gracious trial2 from Himself: for God is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).When the battle began, the Prophet prayed, and threw a handful of dust or sand at the enemy, which, as described in Traditions, struck the eyes of the enemy. This had a great psychological effect. Every act in the battle is ascribed to God, as it was in His cause and it was not undertaken except by His command. (R).Numerically the odds against the Muslims were three to one. In other ways they were at a disadvantage: of arms and equipment they had but little, while the enemy were well-found; they were inexperienced, while the Quraish had brought their foremost warriors. In all this there was a test, but the test was accompanied by gracious favours of countless value: their Commander was one in whom they had perfect faith, and for whom they were ready to lay down their lives; the rain refreshed them; their spirit was unshaken; and they were fighting in God’s cause. Thus the trial or test became itself a blessing.