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Sura 30
Aya 1

Chapter 30

The Byzantinesal-Rūm ( الروم )

60 verses • revealed at Meccan

»The surah that mentions the defeat of The Byzantines and the divine promise of their forthcoming victory in several years—and in prophesying this, implying martial triumph for the Muslims over their idolatrous adversaries at the same time. The surah is occasioned by the celebration of the idol-worshipping opponents of the prophet at the new of the Byzantine defeat by the Persians, for they drew an analogy between themselves and the fire-worshipping Persians as defenders of polytheism in opposition to the monotheism of the Muslims and Byzantine Christians. It derives its name from verse 2 which mentions “Byzantium” (al-Rūm). The surah opens with a reference to the defeat of the Byzantines at the hands of the Persians (613–14 CE) in Syria, and the subsequent victory of the Byzantines in 624 CE. The surah urges people to reflect on the creation of themselves, the heavens and earth, and all God’s wonders. God’s power to give life to a barren land is repeated as an indication both of His ability to raise the dead and of His mercy to mankind. The disbelievers are warned to believe before it is too late; the Prophet is urged to persevere and to ignore the taunts of the disbelievers.«

The surah is also known as Rome, The (East) Romans, The Greeks, The Roman Empire, The Romans

بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحيمِ



Ali Unal

This sūrah of 60 verses was revealed about six or seven years before the Hijrah. It takes its name from the Byzantine Romans mentioned in the second verse. The Byzantines were Christians who had a Divine Scripture and who believed in God without worshipping idols. This is why the Muslims in Makkah felt close to them, while the pagan Quraysh sympathized with the Persians, who they thought would vindicate their opposition to belief in One God. At a time when the Muslims were a very small minority subject to persecution in Makkah, this sūrah consoled them by predicting the unexpected victory of the Romans against the Persians only nine years after a great defeat. Through this prediction, the sūrah also implies the future victory of the Muslims, which was soon to occur. In addition, this sūrah puts forward a multitude of evidence in favor of faith in One God and the Hereafter, and against associating partners with Him.
Alif. Lam. Mim.