This sūrah of 60 verses was revealed about six or seven years before the Hijrah. It takes its name from the Byzantine Romans mentioned in the second verse. The Byzantines were Christians who had a Divine Scripture and who believed in God without worshipping idols. This is why the Muslims in Makkah felt close to them, while the pagan Quraysh sympathized with the Persians, who they thought would vindicate their opposition to belief in One God. At a time when the Muslims were a very small minority subject to persecution in Makkah, this sūrah consoled them by predicting the unexpected victory of the Romans against the Persians only nine years after a great defeat. Through this prediction, the sūrah also implies the future victory of the Muslims, which was soon to occur. In addition, this sūrah puts forward a multitude of evidence in favor of faith in One God and the Hereafter, and against associating partners with Him.
Alif. Lam. Mim.