60 verses • revealed at Meccan
»The surah that mentions the defeat of The Byzantines and the divine promise of their forthcoming victory in several years—and in prophesying this, implying martial triumph for the Muslims over their idolatrous adversaries at the same time. The surah is occasioned by the celebration of the idol-worshipping opponents of the prophet at the new of the Byzantine defeat by the Persians, for they drew an analogy between themselves and the fire-worshipping Persians as defenders of polytheism in opposition to the monotheism of the Muslims and Byzantine Christians. It derives its name from verse 2 which mentions “Byzantium” (al-Rūm). The surah opens with a reference to the defeat of the Byzantines at the hands of the Persians (613–14 CE) in Syria, and the subsequent victory of the Byzantines in 624 CE. The surah urges people to reflect on the creation of themselves, the heavens and earth, and all God’s wonders. God’s power to give life to a barren land is repeated as an indication both of His ability to raise the dead and of His mercy to mankind. The disbelievers are warned to believe before it is too late; the Prophet is urged to persevere and to ignore the taunts of the disbelievers.«
The surah is also known as Rome, The (East) Romans, The Greeks, The Roman Empire, The Romans
بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحيمِ
T. B. Irving: In the name of God, the Mercy-giving, the Merciful!