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Sura 30
Aya 1

Chapter 30

The Byzantinesal-Rūm ( الروم )

60 verses • revealed at Meccan

»The surah that mentions the defeat of The Byzantines and the divine promise of their forthcoming victory in several years—and in prophesying this, implying martial triumph for the Muslims over their idolatrous adversaries at the same time. The surah is occasioned by the celebration of the idol-worshipping opponents of the prophet at the new of the Byzantine defeat by the Persians, for they drew an analogy between themselves and the fire-worshipping Persians as defenders of polytheism in opposition to the monotheism of the Muslims and Byzantine Christians. It derives its name from verse 2 which mentions “Byzantium” (al-Rūm). The surah opens with a reference to the defeat of the Byzantines at the hands of the Persians (613–14 CE) in Syria, and the subsequent victory of the Byzantines in 624 CE. The surah urges people to reflect on the creation of themselves, the heavens and earth, and all God’s wonders. God’s power to give life to a barren land is repeated as an indication both of His ability to raise the dead and of His mercy to mankind. The disbelievers are warned to believe before it is too late; the Prophet is urged to persevere and to ignore the taunts of the disbelievers.«

The surah is also known as Rome, The (East) Romans, The Greeks, The Roman Empire, The Romans

بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحيمِ

Muhammad Asad: In The Name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:


Muhammad Asad

THIS SURAH, revealed about six or seven years before the hijrah, takes its designation from the prophetic reference to the Byzantines in the opening verses. (For the historical background of this prophecy, see notes 2 and 3 below.) From this unequivocal prediction of events which at the time of its revelation were still shrouded in the mists of the future, the surah proceeds rapidly to its central theme: the wonder of God's creation of all that exists, His constant "bringing forth the living out of that which is dead", and thus His ability, and promise, to resurrect the dead at the end of time. But this, the Qur'an says, most people are "determined not to know" (verse 56), because "they know but the outer surface of this world's life, whereas of the ultimate things they are utterly unaware" (verse 7); and because of their oblivion of those ultimate things, "corruption has appeared on land and in the sea as an outcome of what men's hands have wrought" (verse 41): a most incisive prediction of what is happening in the world of our days.
Alif. Lam. Mim.1
  • See Appendix II.